Challenge towards Economy and Social in Malaysia.
Malaysia has already been developed as a commercial hub for the regional economy. If viewed from the aspect of history, there’s no doubt that Malaysia has a strategic position and rich natural resources. But after the economic crisis in 1997-1998, the country faced economic problems that require drastic financial management and financial strategic planning.
Racial Income Gap
Indeed, in this challenge, Malaysia does not run in average inequality in income distribution, especially for those revenues. The gap is due to the May 13 incident is still fresh remember in our mind and become a catalyst for economic change in Malaysia.
But after more than a decade, Malaysia continues to introduce initiatives and program of economic development to bridge up this gap. In one article quotes web release dated December 3, 2010 Star, reports the New Economic Model (NEM) The End of National Economic Advisory Council (NEAC) released on Friday, emphasizing that the action pro-poor approach, that can handle the growth in overall income inequality and social inequality while the poor people out of poverty. Among the measures contained in the New Economic Model is:
1. Offers loans through the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) for housing needs of the middle 40 per cent category that can be paid back through deductions from monthly contributions by employees, which is independent of the cash flow.
2. Allows the lowest 40 per cent for out of the crisis of poverty through education.
3. Offer incentives to teachers to improve their performance and willingness to teach in rural areas as well as in some rural areas and provide a safety net for parents to ensure their children finish school completely.
Not only through the 10th Malaysia Plan, several measures have been introduced to bridge the income gap between races. Among one of the MP-10 is,
1. Growing at a rate of 2.4 percent a year to create 1.4 million jobs, particularly in the services sector.
2. Labor market more flexible.
3. Work Regulations under the Employment Act 1955 will be introduced to attract workers from among the housewives, pensioners and disabled people.
4. RM50 million to continue the matching grants for training and skills upgrading for employees of small and medium enterprises.
Malaysia is so focuses of the unity of all races. Such issues are taken in total, and committed so that no one is marginalized people.
Identification of race based economic activities
If we look at the policies or economic program introduced by the government of Malaysia, it should be taken seriously and should be emulated. These measures were taken and introduced not only to give equal opportunities to all people, but to eradicate poverty in our country that can not be taken lightly. In fact the Government has allocated more capital to generate human capital development and implementation of programs based on economic development to improve living standards and economic stability.
The Government of Malaysia is currently developing a new economic model for the country, among others, based upon the increase in labor productivity, which aims to help them increase revenues. Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak said the government would provide scope of an economic council which will be established, consisting of economic experts, including from abroad, to propose a new economic model for the nation. The introduction of economic models that can also displace the position of a country whose economy is in the high middle income to high income. The increase in labor productivity not only through the contribution of hours worked but also through innovation and creativity.
10 Ninth Malaysia Plan to help improve the income of many races, especially in this country. Arguably the number one national consciousness leader acknowledges and is aware that without the people in the country pengerak be back as a third country. As such an approach was made to ease the burden of 1Malaysia based on the principle of social justice. This principle is defending the interests of all communities and ensure that no group be excluded from the mainstream of development. In this context, social justice should take into account the achievement of all ta hap communities. Thus, justice involves a distribution approach that provides additional assistance to the poor to benefit from economic development. The ultimate aim is to be achieved is to create opportunities and equal basis for all citizens to participate and compete in economic development activities. Distribution policy would focus on ensuring equal opportunities enjoyed by all. This concept is continued as the statements of the 9th Malaysia Plan, the percentage of poverty declined significantly from 49.3% in 1970 to only 3.8% in 2009 while the poverty incidence is almost eclipsed by only 0.7% in 2009. The introduction of skills training and entrepreneurship development are also introduced to low-income workers. It was conducted for the benefit of the poor to benefit from economic development to promote self and the desire to achieve their aspirations.
In addition, new strategies and instruments are also designed to continuously Bumiputera participation. However, this approach should be based on market-friendly principles, merit, transparency and accountability requirements. This is caused because the focus is to improve the living standards of natives of Sabah and Sarawak and the native people community in Peninsular Malaysia. This approach is extended to these people because they want to enhance their competitiveness and participation in higher levels.
Development gap between regions
Regional development is vital for national development, the challenges of development such as this requires a systematic shift of the growth and development in line with the needs of the region. According to the report the Development Composite Index (DFI), which quoted from the report-8 th Malaysia Plan, covering the central region of Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur is the most developed regions in 2005. However, states such as Sabah and the eastern states, namely Kelantan, Pahang, and Terengganu are the least developed regions. Gross Domestic Product or GDP shows the central region and southern region are either due to rapid economic sectors in the regions to contribute their respective states. While the Eastern and Sabah had the lowest GDP.
To meet the requirements of the development gap and balance the territory, once again Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdul Razak Najip few have taken drastic measures ith introduced several proposals. These proposals include increasing investment in Iskandar Malaysia, Johor, with the introduction of Premium Outlet danMSC Cyberport City. This project will create economic spillover and equal opportunities in employment and business to the area
Northern Corridor Economic Region will be focused in the agricultural, manufacturing and services (tourism and logistics). Northern Corridor Economic Region as well as highlight and emphasize human capital, technology and infrastructure. East Coast Economic Region (ECER) will emphasize the focus on areas such as pelancaongan, oil, gas and petrochemical industries, agriculture and education. Through the MP-10, the ECER will be developed strategically all economic activities will focus on six nodes identified in the ECER Special Economic Zone (SEZ ECER) as a manufacturing hub and center of commercial danperkhidmatan pengedarandan acquisition, development MerentasiSempadan (Tumpat-Kota Bharu-Bachok- Tok Bali-Besut), Triangle of Kuala Terengganu, Dungun, Kenyir, Mersing – Rompin, Gua Musang, K. Lipis, and Bentong – Raub.
Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE) is located in the central region of Sarawak. SCORE is a core source of energy, especially hydropower capacity of 28.000 MW. This allows Sarawak competitive pricing of energy and encourage investment in power generation and energy-intensive industries. Five nodes were identified with the growth objectives focus on development and investment kepadausaha
Sabah Development Corridor (SDC) includes all of the state with emphasis given to the Strategic Development Area (SDA), which has been identified in order to generate employment and income for local people and contribute to sustainable economic growth. Development in these areas would be beneficial spillover to the interior and surroundings.
With a design that is designated for each region, it will not be another occurrence of ketidakseimbang income. Full of care planning and ongoing research that could afford to build the region and help generate economic development.
Malaysia is no exception to the many challenges from its inception 50 years ago. Struggle for the struggle moved to raise the spirit of nationalism among the people to enjoy freedom. However, efforts still pursued by politicians in Malaysia to address the challenges abaransosial always challenging the integrity and soundness of our beloved country. Social challenges can not be taken for granted and underestimated like the saying goes’ for a drop of indigo, sebelanga damaged. Among the social challenges of a separate education is a hot issue, the polarization and the social contract.
Separate education has existed in the days of British rule in Malaya. These systems are designed by the British for the time being they do not harmonize with the educational curriculum of teacher education and this led to differences between the syllabus.
Not deny the existence of separate education brings positive and negative effects in society. Such education will lead to different measures for each school and involves the heavy labor. Many people, especially Malaysia considers separate education does not reflect the concept of a plural society. Successive generations are born by the system is beginning to show that the racial divide deepens. Malay School (primary school is less popular among the Chinese, for example) produce race-based think tank kemelayuan, Islam and kekampungannya thick, to produce a generation of Chinese school-based kecinaan, kiasu and kebandarannya is lowered, while the Tamil school (a bit left out) to produce a generation is in fact not so brilliant and neglected. The proposed establishment of an education system that flows in line with the concept of a plural society, as expressed by Datuk Mukhriz Mahathir, a member of Parliament Jerlun suggested that the government create a single education system that is based on the national spirit of uniting people and to avoid racial polarization in this country. According to him, through the education system so that all schools a variety of embedded under a national system denagn Malay as the medium of instruction except for Science and Mathematics are taught in English. “Of course, the students must learn their mother tongue is Mandarin for Chinese and Tamil for the Indians. Even under this system, the Malay students have the option to learn another language other than Mandarin and Tamil, “he said. Overall, 805 respondents obtained from the 1.558 or the equivalent of 52% agreed on the proposed school system proposed by the members of Parliament Jerlun. (Source of Information: Department of Information Malaysia, December 2008).
The challenge to create a parallel system should be studied in greater depth and should not be taken lightly. So to create a pluralistic society and the cooperation of unions in education is every community in Malaysia.
‘Polarization’ has long existed in our country, Malaysia since the British colonial era in which all ethnic groups in Malaysia set to stay in their respective sectors, such as the living traditions of Malays, ethnic Chinese with mining and business people in india oil palm plantations and rubber. From there, the distribution pattern of the community have influenced the formation of a static and unchanging until Malaysia gained independence.
Polarization has created many problems in the relations between the races in Malaysia and this caused a race for dominance of the tendency of any sector, whether public or private sectors or areas in the country. One of the effects of social polarization occurs is the disparity in the education system. Country’s education system is divided into two types: national and national-type schools (Chinese and Tamil type). The difference between the two schools was much less affected the academic quality of students. According to an article written freelance writer, John Lee, a national school of academic quality is very low and there is no comparison with the Chinese national type schools, where teachers are dedicated and encouraging students to excel in their studies. In primary school, teachers more often have no motivation to teach. In addition, national-type schools to teach the mother tongue of Chinese and Tamil, would the parents of Chinese and Tamil would rather send their children to national type schools. “
In the employment sector, rather obvious when viewed with our own eyes. Can we see a people master something like the business sector that is controlled by the Chinese, and it does not change from the days of British rule. Indian society is more likely to professional sectors such as lawyers, doctors and others. Meanwhile, the Malay community over to the administration or management.
The social contract approved by the leaders of the results of the Malay, Chinese and India and political parties they represent, UMNO, MCA and MIC. However, this social contract should be treated as an agreement among the various ethnic groups and not among the leaders or the elite. Alliances that support the people as evidenced by the election victory of the Alliance in 1955. People need to understand the historical fact that the social contract reached through consensus and consultation processes. Information Source: – Strategic Information Management Division, Ministry of Information Malaysia
The issue arises because of the social contract in the current generation menggangapnya as irrelevant and would like to take a chance on him. Some of the non-Malays also consider the social contract as something that is associated with citizenship. It is a gift given to those who at the time of the immigrants or the descendants of generations imigran.Oleh why non-Malays are now regarded as something that has passed. They also knew that the privilege of indigenous people are part of the social contract. Since the non-Malays be given citizenship on certain conditions, indigenous people were given refuge by the clauses in the Constitution of the privilege. To those compromises are tied to a particular time, so they do not see the relevance now.
The social contract is a starting point for unity and harmony that we have achieved today. But why after several decades of our country continue to develop the country along with other developed countries, some people deliberately neglected the issue of the social contract that had been sealed for a long time ago. Is not the current modernization and development rapidly, every Malaysian must all continue forward together to ensure our country continues to be at maintaining unity and kerharmonian.
The concept of a Malaysia that was introduced by our present Prime Minister, Dato ‘Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak is another perspective in an effort to attract the people of Malaysia in the refining and understand what the social contract is an important agreement that was signed a while ago. This concept is not something new, but a continuation of the previous prime minister. In fact, it should be noted that people are not like before, people now more advanced in terms of knowledge, education and ideas than with their fathers. However, the present generation should maintain unity and not expect anything from the government such as the Malay proverb says’ a broken and a hammer. ” Awareness, concern and commitment must be to assume the responsibility which had been built by our leaders take pains to unite us.
Therefore, as a new generation of problems of the social contract is no longer seen as remnants of history, but an approach to harmony and unity is required to bring Malaysia into a more challenging level. The world is changing and a new generation of speech and act more boldly challenge. Thus, the new generation should speak for the sake of unity, acting for the benefit.
Malaysian Economic and Sosial Challange towards the future.
Story Arrangement By: Sabah Todays Admin
Sources: Mr Brolin Jules Lovijin/ Pendidikan Negara Bangsa / MEB
Picture: Googles Images